Lyme disease is a common disease in humans and many mammals, including dogs. It is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi , a bacterium transmitted by ticks. This disease mostly prevalent in areas of northern and eastern France . All infected dogs do not report symptoms.
What are the signs of the disease?
Young dogs regularly exposed to tick bites , are the most affected animals.
Symptoms can occur up to several months after the infective bite , which is why we observe the same disease outside the periods of activity of ticks , unlike piroplasmosis for example.
The clinical signs of the disease are varied:
These crises are often intermittent and may be moderate (depending on the dog's reactivity threshold to pain and attention of the owners ) , so that dog owners do not necessarily consult a veterinarian at the beginning because the dog will better after a few days.
A breach of various organs can accompany these clinical signs : lymphadenopathy (increase in the size of lymph nodes) , kidney failure, heart , skin problems (in particular , redness at the tick bite , but rarely observed because of the density hair ) , nervous ( much rarer ) .
There is not necessarily any obvious external signs of these organ damage and only a close examination and laboratory tests can detect .
The diagnosis of the disease :
It is based on the epidemiology ( geographical location, exposure to tick bites ) and clinical signs ( recurrent fevers , joint pain ) . But there are many diseases with similar clinical signs.
Serology is possible , although many dogs become infected without symptoms. It does not constitute a definitive diagnosis alone . So it is usually a second blood test to confirm the diagnosis two weeks later . Finally, the rapid response to antibiotic treatment is a component of the diagnosis.
How to prevent this disease?
The best prevention is based on the preventive treatment against ticks , including the dogs at risk ( walks in the woods , hunting dogs). Discover the products to fight against ticks : Frontline, Defendog , Scalibor , Préventef ...
Unfortunately, the anti-tick products are not always 100% effective . So always check that your dog does not tick when it comes to ride, and remove any . Do not forget your O'TOM easily hook to remove all ticks !
There is also a vaccine for dogs at risk of contracting this disease .
This disease, well known in humans, may also decline in domestic animals , and its importance in some regions in France is probably undervalued , given the non-specific clinical signs and the possibility, in some areas of have a combination of several germs transmitted by ticks ( ehrlichiosis , babesiosis , hépatozoonose ... ) resulting in fairly similar symptoms.
So it is better to remain cautious about exposure to tick bites , protecting dogs at risk and inspecting his dog properly ride back. The vaccine may also provide additional security in some cases .
Canine heartworm disease is caused by the transmission of an internal parasite ( Dirofilaria immitis) by a mosquito (Culex pipiens) . Another name for this condition : " heartworm disease ," hints at the impact of heartworm disease .
What is that heartworm disease ?
Heartworm is heart disease the dog encountered everywhere in the World, in tropical areas but also in areas with a temperate climate. Southern Europe is concerned, in particular the Mediterranean coast and northern Italy. There are also some cases in Dombes example.
This disease is caused by a roundworm , heartworm , which parasite the dog's heart . This worm is transmitted to dogs by the bite of certain mosquitoes . Following the bite of an infected mosquito larvae ( microfilariae ) penetrates under the dog's skin and evolves and migrates to the heart as an adult and settled in the pulmonary arteries . They will thus interfere with the heart and cause long-term , or in the case of massive infestation , severe hemolytic syndrome which falls under emergency or obstruction of the vena cava.
What are the signs of the disease?
Signs usually appear several months after the infective bite or years , only. It results in heart problems ( right heart failure ) and respiratory cough, difficulty breathing, fatigue, syncope during exercise, weight loss and muscle wasting , abdominal effusion and sometimes chest , kidney problems
The ' vena cava syndrome " is a particularly severe form of the disease, when the infestation is massive. The signs are varied : anorexia , lethargy, weakness , jaundice (jaundice ) and pale mucous membranes , hemoglobinuria ( dark urine) , tachycardia.
Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, results of blood tests and the epidemiological situation. The vet can also search for micro- wire in the blood or to a serological test .
Is this serious disease ?
This disease is very serious if the signs are already advanced , and the effects are important even for successful treatment.
There are treatments to remove these worms , but they are not without danger, for the destruction of worms causes reactions in the body fatigue, anorexia, fever, cough, risk of thrombosis. In addition, the injections are painful and can lead to local problems.
The treated animal must remain in the fullest possible while resting at least a month or more.
How to protect my animal ?
This disease is potentially very serious and slow growing , it is best to protect themselves. To do this , precautions are necessary:
1. avoid twilight outputs contaminated area
2. avoid swamps and other wet areas if possible , especially in the dark
3. put screens on windows
The best way , however, remains the prophylactic treatment the veterinarian may prescribe preventive medicine before going on holiday in the Mediterranean or in the tropics. These are tablets that protect your companion for a month. Must be taken before the start and continue treatment one month after return.
The Ehrlichiosis the dog, an infectious disease transmitted by ticks
The Ehrlichiosis is an infectious disease caused by Rickettsia . The most common bacterium Ehrlichia canis , other species of Ehrlichia can infect dogs. The bacterium is transmitted to dogs by a tick ( Rhipicephalus sanguineus ) , during a blood meal and incubation of the disease is about 10 to 20 days.
In France, describes the ehrlichiosis especially around the Mediterranean , in the Rhone Valley and the Southwest , but also in the Lyon region , the Massif Central and the Paris Basin .
Cases of ehrlichiosis are more common in spring and fall ( maximum tick activity).
What are the symptoms of canine ehrlichiosis?
After incubation, the disease is expressed by an acute phase 2 to 4 weeks, with sudden onset of high fever, a depression, loss of appetite and sometimes a nasal discharge. In its chronic form, the signs are dominated by various bleeding disorders petechiae, epistaxis, hematuria, ... and the installation of anemia, weight loss, ... Finally, depending on the type of Ehrlichia involved, to Other symptoms may occur: lameness, swollen joints, back arched, diarrhea, vomiting, eye hemorrhage, ...
How to make the diagnosis of ehrlichiosis?
Diagnosis is difficult because the symptoms are highly variable and nonspecific. The disease can easily be confused with other diseases such as leishmaniasis, babesiosis, ...
The use of blood tests is essential: blood count to measure the levels of platelets and red blood cells, research the bacteria in certain blood cells or bone marrow, serology, PCR, ...
What is the prognosis of canine ehrlichiosis ?
This is a serious disease. Untreated , ehrlichiosis is fatal in about 30 % of cases. If an untreated animal can overcome an acute attack , there is a carrier of the bacterium is typically relapse .
Can we treat the dog ehrlichiosis ?
Fortunately , there are various treatment to fight against the bacteria. The acute treatment gives the best results .
In severe cases, if anemia or a drop of blood platelets are present, if the state of the animal is very deteriorated , hospitalization to implement appropriate intensive care , infusion , blood transfusion, ... is indicated.