The PARVOVIRUS is a viral disease of dogs , highly contagious and often fatal. It is also called Gastro hemorrhagic enteritis .
It is due to the Canine Parvovirus (CPV ), very resistant virus in the environment , as well as many disinfectants . Contagion is mainly in environments contaminated by the feces of sick dogs .
Affected animals are mostly puppies, unvaccinated adult dogs and community dogs (kennels ) .
a) SYMPTOMS :
They are dazzling : the animal is suffering from bloody diarrhea with foul odor. Vomiting are also possible.
The dog has to fever, is shot and becomes dehydrated very quickly.
The virus also attacks the white blood cells leading to lower the body 's defenses.
b) DIAGNOSIS :
It is based on the symptoms and evolution , namely:
- A serological screening test for possible blood test.
- A test MADE DIRECTLY ON THE STOOL which allows to highlight the virus .
c) TREATMENT AND EVOLUTION :
It requires a hospital with intensive care : infusion , antibiotics, anti emetic ...
The disease is often rapidly fatal in puppies in 2 to 5 days.
d) LEGISLATION :
Canine PARVOVIRUS is a fatal flaw in the dog. It is a disease subject has legal obligations on the part of the seller, to protect the customer.
If a puppy is sold sick or carrying the virus , it must be made and will be reimbursed by the seller .
Among the canine coronavirus , the best known is the enteric coronavirus that can infect dogs of all ages. Transmission is by the fecal -oral route. However, young puppies 6 to 12 weeks are the most susceptible to infection ; vomiting and diarrhea is observed 1 to 3 days after infection . The diarrhea may be bloody, but this is not always the case. Mortality from enteric canine coronavirus is rare. Recently, two genotypes have been identified in faeces of patients pups : the CCOV CCOV I and II. The CCOV I did not grow in cell culture unlike CCOV II.
In 2005, a highly pathogenic variant CCOV II was identified in Italy , clinical signs observed in three dwarves Pinschers 45 days from a pet store were fever , anorexia , apathy , diarrhea bleeding and seizures. The death occurred in 48 hours. The experimental infection of dogs showed that hemorrhagic diarrhea arose between 2 and 7 days after infection, vomiting were later ( 4-5 days after infection). Leukopenia was also observed in these dogs . The lesions on autopsy show haemorrhagic enteritis, spleen increased volume with bleeding under the capsule , the liver and the lungs were congested and hemorrhage were visible on the surface. Decaro and colleagues have shown that age of the dog, the outcome was not the same . Older (6 months ) recovered slowly, while the youngest, aged 2.5 months , presented more severe clinical signs and two of three experimentally infected puppies had to be euthanized .
This canine coronavirus is not different from CCOV II viruses in fecal dog materials. However, the prevalence of infection is responsible for the disease severity . Also, the virus was called canine coronavirus pantropic ( Eng: panatropic canine coronavirus - CCOV ) .
Since March 2008, six episodes of bloody diarrhea followed by convulsions and death within 48 hours of the puppies were highlighted in northern France and Belgium. In many cases, the affected puppies have been in contact with animals from countries in Eastern Europe, one to two weeks before the onset of clinical signs. The autopsy of the bodies showed lymphadénomégalie , pulmonary congestion and degenerative liver disease. Analysis by RT -PCR has made it possible to demonstrate the presence of infection CCOV II. The fact that the CCOV II is present in all organs removed ( intestine, spleen , lung, kidney , liver and brain) allows to call him a pantropic .
Further studies are needed to better understand this virus and the disease it causes widespread . However, the following factors will lead to suspect infection with canine coronavirus pantropic and differentiate it from canine parvovirus with which it is often confused likely : the rapid evolution of the disease , the presence of seizures and context of vaccination against canine parvovirus . Laboratory diagnosis is made by RT-PCR on faeces and deep organs , spleen , lung, kidney , liver and brain.
Vaccines against canine coronavirus are available in both Europe and the United States . This vaccine contains the same antigens as canine coronavirus pantropic . It was found that the puppies were naturally infected with enteric CCOV were not protected against experimental infection pantropic virus. The symptoms , however, were less pronounced.
Coronaviruses can cause respiratory, digestive and nervous systems in various species . There is little longer , disease and the symptoms associated with coronavirus infections were mild. That is why we have conducted very little research on antiviral specifically directed against coronaviruses .
But especially since the emergence of SARS-CoV in human medicine and, to a lesser extent, since the emergence of infectious peritonitis in cats in veterinary medicine, diligent search was initiated for drugs that may be used in these infections.
Regarding infections pantropic canine coronavirus , it has not proposed until now , in addition to symptomatic treatment , of specific antiviral therapies .
The recombinant feline omega interferon is currently approved in Belgium in the treatment of feline leukemia and canine parvovirus . A recent controlled study failed to demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of feline infectious peritonitis, feline coronavirus infection. This result does not argue in favor of the efficacy of omega interferon in the treatment of canine pantropic coronavirosis . Controlled studies are needed to evaluate this treatment in dogs.
So vigilance is still required , even for pets , which are not immune to the emergence of new viral diseases.